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Process Description

The CVD Process (see diagram at bottom of this page)

CVDS's process consists of a fully integrated (carbonyl generation and deposition), low operating pressure, process. We have also developed highly automated state-of-the-art environment monitoring instrumentations, which are crucial for running the NVD process safely. Access to new materials, high-speed information processing technology capable of real-time interface with the CVD system, sophisticated instrumentation and new designs of the CVD process technology, have made it possible for us to re-engineer the old Mond NVD process (used by mining and some tool and die shops).

Applications of the CVD Process

Our innovations have rendered the process environmentally safe and commercially viable for a variety of diversified applications, such as:



  • Net nickel shapes in seamless form with internal cooling channels

  • Accurately surfaced parts for machinery; ballistics; shaped charges
  • Diffraction grating
  • Micro-structurally toughened composites
  • Purification of contaminated metals
  • Ultra pure nickel metal products, such as powders and foams
  • EMI shielding
  • Hologram masters; image plates
  • Microscopy surface replicates
  • Fresnel lenses
  • Laser mirrors
  • X-ray; neutron beam lenses
  • Security "printing" of currency, stamps, etc.
  • Nickel printed circuits
  • Magneto-strictive components
  • Catalytic surfaces
  • Nickel layer for subsequent overlay welding
  • Nickel layer for metal/ceramic welding
  • Textured seed crystals for turbine single crystal blades
  • Superconductor fiber coating
  • Sheet, rod, wire production
  • Alloy and metal matrix composite parts
  • Coating of finished composite vanes and blades
  • Protective leading edge for propeller blades, helicopter blades
  CVD Normal Nickel Properties

When a nickel part is produced by the MOCVD process, the typical properties of pure nickel are:
  • Hardness: 200 VHN up to 1100VHN
  • Ultimate tensile strength: 740 MPa
  • Yield strength: 470 MPa
  • Elongation: 12.4%
  • Elastic Module: 160 GPa
  • Elemental analysis:
    • S <1ppm
    • C 60-80ppm
    • Fe <5 ppm
CVD Hardened Nickel Properties

With the MOCVD process, we are able to deposit not only pure nickel, but nickel alloys. The most common alloy we use as hardened nickel for injection mould applications is specified below:
Nickel alloy as deposited Tensile strength (MPa): 1371 Elongation: 3.3%
Nickel alloy after 200 h at 250oC 1189 Mpa 6.4%
Nickel alloy as deposited: Hardness 46 (HRc)
Nickel alloy after 200 hr at 250oC: Hardness 37 (HRc)
Nickel alloy as deposited: Yield strength (MPa) 810
Nickel alloy after 200 hr at 250oC: Yield strength (MPa) 845
Nickel alloy as deposited: Elastic module (GPa) 224
Nickel alloy after 200 hr at 250oC: Elastic module (GPa) 1189
  The deposition process can be finely controlled, allowing the first deposited layer (usually 0.060"-0.080") to possess a higher level of hardness and tensile strength; followed by pure nickel deposition with high elongation. The properties of the deposited material are gradually changed, without any visible border layer. This reduces the risk of delamination in the final product.
  The nickel alloys (as described above) are examples of the many we can create by deposition. We can also modify the properties of nickel alloys to achieve hardness of up to 1100 HV.

The Advantages of CVD Nickel Compared to Electroformed Nickel

  • High deposition rate: inch thick plate can be deposited in one day
  • Exact replication of surface of the mandrel, excellent for optical applications
  • Properties of the deposited nickel/nickel alloys can be controlled during the deposition
  • Low sulphur content and therefore very good weldability
  • Low residual stress
  • Very good uniformity of deposition.

Diagram of the Nickel CVD Process

Diagram of the Nickel CVD Process

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