Category Archives: Technologies

Understanding the Factors Affecting the Formation of Carbonyl Iron Electrodes in Rechargeable Alkaline Iron Batteries

Aswin K. Manohar, Chenguang Yang, Souradip Malkhandi, Bo Yang, G. K. Surya Prakash and S. R. Narayanan,z Abstract Rechargeable iron-based alkaline batteries such as iron – air and nickel – iron batteries are attractive for large-scale electrical energy storage because iron is inexpensive, globally-abundant and environmentally-friendly. Further, the iron electrode is known for its robustness to repeated charge/discharge cycling. During manufacturing these batteries are charged and discharged 20 to 50 times during which the … Continue reading

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Carbonyl Surface Coating

Stage 1 A preliminary test applying a carbonyl nickel coating to several substrates was performed at CVMR Corporation in Toronto, Ontario, Canada (see Appendix 1-B in the Introduction Chapter). Zinc alloy A190, copper alloy C110 and low-carbon steel surfaces were prepared by depositing carbonyl nickel at 175 °C (347 °F). The coated specimens were subjected to various thermal exposures to increase interface bonding and to reduce residual stresses. The specimen geometries comprised planchets, approximately … Continue reading

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The Carbonyl Nickel Coin Manufacturing Concept

1.Background The carbonyl or Mond process was discovered in 1884 when Ludwig Mond noticed that hot carbon monoxide (CO) gas would severely corrode nickel. The carbonyl process exploits the ability of CO to form compounds with many of the transition elements in Groups VIA to VIIIA of the Periodic Table of Elements. The process works particularly well for nickel and it is reversible. That is, nickel can be extracted from a substrate, or deposited … Continue reading

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CARBONYL PROCESS

The carbonyl process is not part of the proposed action or any of the alternatives discussed in this EA, but it was briefly investigated during the course of this effort, so a concise summary of the process and the potential environmental impacts are included for reference. The carbonyl process was invented in 1903 and deposits nickel, iron, cobalt and some other metals by a relatively low-temperature gaseous process; but also can extract these metals … Continue reading

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Surface Engineering by the Carbonyl Process

Problem: The DoD spends tens of billions of dollars each year on corrosion & wear prevention and repair. Many technologies are employed for different alloys and environments. Several commonly used protection technologies have adverse environmental effects. Solution: The carbonyl process is a century old process by which certain transition elements can be extracted or removed by carbon monoxide gas at a particular temperature, or deposited on most substrates at another temperature. The process is … Continue reading

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CVMR CARBONYL PROCESS Application to Laterite Ore of a CVMR client in Africa

CVMR’s process for refining of Ferralite and Saprolite ore maximizes value of the ores by producing value added products. Ferralite ore A typical Ferralite ore contains 40-45% of Iron, 1-1.5% of Nickel, 0.04-0.10% of Co (potentially Copper, PGE and Rare earth elements). * Published with permission of the client.

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Carbonyl Iron vs. Ferrous Iron

Carbonyl Iron Less Toxic and Better Tolerated than Ferrous Iron Slower to Absorb With ferrous iron, generally all iron is available for absorption. However, with carbonyl iron, only a small percentage is available for absorption.1,2 The rate at which your body absorbs carbonyl iron depends on the production of gastric acid (which is required to make carbonyl iron soluble), and the balance between the iron being dissolved and absorbed by your intestines. This means … Continue reading

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Forms of Iron

Iron comes in two forms: heme iron (from meat and animal products) and non-heme iron (from other sources like vegetables and iron supplements). Non-heme iron used in iron supplements can appear in 3 forms: Ferric iron (Fe3+) — This type of iron is less soluble than ferrous iron in an environment when pH is greater than 3. It has to be converted to ferrous iron (Fe2+) so that it can be dissolved and absorbed … Continue reading

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